Power-to-X refers to the ability to store excess electricity by converting the electrical energy into gas, synthetic fuels or solids. If required, these stored substances can then be converted back into electrical energy and used.
What does power-to-X mean in practice?
Power-to-X includes all processes that convert electricity into chemical energy carriers (storage), into fuels (mobility) or raw materials (for use in the chemical industry, for example). However, this is only beneficial for the environment if the electricity used for this purpose comes from climate-friendly plants such as solar or wind. Power-to-X can then be used to produce hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles, for example, or kerosene for aircraft. Power refers to excess electricity (e.g., from solar panels) and X refers to the medium used to store or use it.
Different uses require different conversion
From the previously described possible applications for a power-to-X process, it is easy to see that different processes are used in daily practice. This results in several classifications commonly used in the literature:
- Intended use:
- Energy forms:
Electrolysis for storing energy surpluses
One of the most interesting processes for storing excess energy is electrolysis, in which electrical energy splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. Energy efficiency is a basic requirement for the successful operation of your electrolysis process. The same applies to the energy conversion in your stacks or to the pump controls that regulate the water supply. Even greater efficiency is provided by a heat exchanger for recovering energy from the waste heat, as well as modern valves and sensors that control all these functions. With Danfoss, you get an optimally matched solution here every time. More on the topic can be found under the listed links to the Federal Ministry for the Environment or TÜV Süd. There is also a nice article about Power-to-X at Wikipedia.