The Danfoss Drives Glossary

Technical terms on Danfoss Discover Drives briefly explained

Danfoss Discover Drives gives you a quick insight into many applications, practical solutions and trends in modern drive solutions. So it is only natural that for many of the articles we also use the necessary and common technical terms used by the specialists from the individual segments of industry, building, food or water and wastewater technology. However, to make it easier for everyone to understand and also to provide a consistent definition of how we at Danfoss use the terms on our pages, we use this glossary to briefly explain them.

For a more detailed discussion of the definition and usage of terms used on our Discover Drives page, as well as further links to individual terms where appropriate, simply click on the term in the text. The click will take you to a page with expanded information including any graphics and links to other pages.

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  • The affinity law describes the mathematical-physical relationships between power and speed in flow machines, such as fans and pumps, which have a quadratic characteristic curve. In concrete terms, this means that doubling the speed of a motor leads to a fourfold increase in power consumption. On the other hand, the reduction in speed therefore leads to lower power consumption, but this also reduces performance. Frequency inverters can precisely regulate the speed of the motor according to(...)
  • In applications where there are no rapid load changes, the integrated inverter function can be used for Automatic Energy Optimization (AEO). Automatic adjustment of the magnetization level of the motor takes place after the application has reached the steady state of operation. With the reduction of the magnetization level and the motor current, the motor voltage and thus the energy consumption is also reduced. The average energy saving potential for small to medium size frequency(...)
  • Wastewater from households and industrial plants contains particles and fibers that cannot be completely retained by the upstream screen filters. These impurities in the water are deposited on the impellers of the pumps, resulting in a reduction in performance and excessive wear of the pump due to so-called clogging. This usually results in time-consuming, costly and labor-intensive maintenance and repair work. This must be avoided. Intelligent frequency inverters, such as the Danfoss(...)
  • A bottle cellar is an important part of the beer production process in a brewery. Beers are bottled there and stored under optimum conditions to guarantee maximum quality. In a bottle cellar there are machines for filling, labeling, packaging and cleaning the bottles: Filling machine: This machine fills the beer into the bottles and ensures that the bottles are filled evenly and that the beer does not overflow. Labeling machine: This machine applies labels to the front and back(...)
  • The filling technology is a cascaded system, which is designed according to the modular system. After a weighing and dosing process, the product is removed from the silos/tanks docked at the filling system via a conveyor system, such as a pump, and filled into containers as required.
  • A brewery is, by and large, a facility for the production of compound liquids, mainly by means of fermentation. A brewery refers to a place or building (brewery) where beer or other fermented beverages are brewed, and places with brewing facilities are collectively referred to in the industry as breweries. There are different types of breweries that produce different types of beer with different processes and varying degrees of automation. Brewing processes can be carried out manually or(...)
  • The brewhouse is part of the brewery. This is where the wort is produced. Wort is the liquid that is produced during lautering from the brewing water, hops and dissolved malt sugar. It is produced when the mash is separated from the brewing water in which the malt has been soaked. During lautering, the solid substances in the malt settle in the lauter tun. During production, a distinction is made between a hot block and a cold block. The warm block includes the first stages of beer(...)
  • Efficient building technology serves to increase and guarantee the comfort and safety of a building's occupants. It also makes a significant contribution to greater energy efficiency and a reduction in operating costs through higher-level control systems. Modern building technology focuses on integrated systems that communicate with each other and complement each other. This takes place via networked systems that are linked by means of common protocols via a control level, which also(...)
  • They usually work behind the scenes: Pumps, fans and compressors are of great importance in many areas of our everyday lives. They have to work reliably day after day. Without the tasks they perform, such as ventilating and supplying buildings or supplying and disposing of drinking water, our lives would be much more difficult. All of these applications require perfectly functioning pumps, fans and compressors. Cascade control with position controller, speed controller, current(...)
  • Centrifugal pumps are flow machines that use the principle of centrifugal force. They consist of two main parts, pump and motor. In most cases, these pumps use electric motors, e.g. asynchronous, permanent magnet or synchronous reluctance motors, which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. The pump is set in motion with the mechanical energy. Due to the rapid rotation of the impeller, the pressure drops in the center and rises at the edge of the impeller. Centrifugal pumps,(...)
  • In the beverage industry, including breweries, the climate plays an important role in the production of beverages. An appropriate climate is important to ensure safe storage of the products. To keep the climate under control, frequency converter-controlled air conditioning systems are usually used. The electronic speed control of fans, pumps and compressors allows the performance of cooling and heating systems to be regulated sustainably, thereby extending the service life of the(...)
  • Refrigeration systems have the task of keeping production rooms, storage rooms and processing areas at a specified temperature in order to ensure maximum quality of the beverages produced, following the example of the brewery. Efficient refrigeration technology is therefore an important factor in the beverage industry, especially in breweries. Modern refrigeration technology relies on energy-efficient systems such as compressors controlled by frequency inverters, enabling integrated(...)
  • Colocation refers to a technique whereby various companies house their IT infrastructure with a service provider at an external location where they have access to secure, high-performance and reliable technology. Service providers provide server rooms that are specially designed to house IT equipment such as servers. They ensure optimum connection of the systems, high reliability, optimum conditions for operation, but also maximum security to protect the server cabinets against(...)
  • Condition-based monitoring (CBM) is a maintenance strategy that schedules systems for maintenance based on their condition and not on a predefined schedule. Maintenance is carried out when necessary. CMB achieves higher system availability and prevents unplanned machine/system downtimes. Condition-based monitoring therefore contributes to more efficient and cost-effective maintenance. Comprehensive data collection and analysis helps to identify problems at an early stage and plan(...)
  • The grouping of goods in logistics is also known as "packaging" in technical jargon. The term "Kollo" is used to describe general cargo transported as a package. Liquid cargoes and gases that are not stored in containers cannot be transported as containers. These containers are used, among others: Bottles Barrel goods Bags and cardboard packaging Buckets and cans
  • In the beverage industry, as in this case, conveyor belts are an indispensable part of the system to ensure efficient and safe conveying of bottles, cans and other containers and to connect the various stations of a system. Conveyor belts generally have to be robust in order to transport heavy loads. At the same time, they must be easy to start and stop so that bottles and other objects cannot fall over. The throughput speed is also important for optimum production output. Operators(...)
  • In the beverage industry, conveyor belts are an important part of the production process. They are used, among other things, for transporting containers for liquids such as beer or soft drinks and packaging. Efficiency plays a particularly important role when using conveyor belts. An important factor when selecting conveyor belts is choosing the right motors and load distribution on the belt. The choice of motor depends on the desired belt speed and the load that the belt has to carry. A(...)
  • Danfoss Drive stands for innovation and modern solutions for motor starting and speed control. Danfoss was the first manufacturer to mass-produce frequency inverters. Since then, the company has been a pioneer in speed-controlled drives and digital solutions. Danfoss Drives has a wide range of frequency inverters, softstarters, grid converters and the corresponding services from planning to installation, commissioning and service and support. The Danfoss Group is committed to(...)
  • Disinfectant foam is a special type of disinfectant that is applied to the surface as a foam. It is used to kill various types of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms that adhere to surfaces. In this way, kitchen appliances, work surfaces as well as beverage and other food industry equipment can be disinfected germ-free to prevent contamination of food in the production process. The disinfectant foam consists of the cleaning fluid and air. Advantages: Foam is easy to control(...)
  • District heating is the use of heat from a central heat generator via a heating network to many connected buildings. It is an ecologically sensible and cost-effective alternative to individual heating systems and is easiest to use for buildings close to the heat generator. Waste heat, for example from data centers or other production facilities with high waste heat output, is now used to feed the heating network. A major advantage is the higher efficiency compared to individual heating(...)
  • The Doemens Academy is a private educational institution in Gräfelfing near Munich that specializes in training specialists in the fields of beverage technology and production. Doemens has a total of 33 employees. Albert Doemens founded the academy in 1895. For more than 100 years, it has been an internationally successful training, further education and consulting company in the brewing, beverage and food industry. Holistic and innovative thinking is at the heart of knowledge transfer(...)
  • EC+ is a concept from Danfoss that allows planners/users/operators to combine the best components to achieve maximum efficiency and the highest system efficiency, while using significantly less energy and energy costs. The concept enables the use of PM motors in IEC standard dimensions with a Danfoss VLT® frequency inverter. Danfoss has integrated the necessary control process into the existing VLT® inverter series. This does not result in any changes for the operator. After entering(...)
  • Energy efficiency is an important factor when selecting electrical appliances. Energy efficiency class is a system that divides electrical appliances into different classes based on their energy efficiency. The higher the efficiency class, the more efficient the appliance is in terms of energy consumption and the lower the emission of propellant gases. There are various labels that indicate how much energy an appliance consumes. It is important that such labels are taken into account when(...)
  • The energy input indicates how much energy is supplied to a system in order to achieve a desired state, for example. The example of a frequency inverter illustrates how the drive system absorbs energy in order to achieve a desired output and provide speed and torque for a load. The energy class (G value) indicates how efficiently a frequency inverter converts energy and rates the degree of efficiency on a scale from A (highest efficiency) to G (lowest efficiency). Energy classes A-G.(...)
  • Motor manufacturers are working on various concepts to achieve high levels of efficiency in electric motors. In addition to the tried-and-tested three-phase asynchronous motors (DASM), permanent magnet motors (PM) and synchronous reluctance motors (SynRM) now also boast the highest energy efficiency classes in industrial and commercial applications. All motor technologies in the same efficiency class offer comparable efficiency at the nominal point, but also have many differences, for(...)
  • A fan is a machine element that moves and distributes air or gas. Fans are primarily used in industrial and technical facilities, but also provide the required air flow in households and air conditioning ventilation systems. Fans exist in different sizes and shapes to suit a variety of applications. The most common types are: Axial fans, diagonal fans and centrifugal fans. Axial fans, which resemble a propeller, are often used in air conditioning and exhaust systems to move air. The(...)
  • A fermentation cellar is a special room in which the fermentation process during beer production takes place in a controlled manner. For this process, the brewer brings beer wort and yeast together in a controlled manner, as the temperature, humidity and air circulation in the fermenting cellar must be precisely controlled in order to achieve the best quality. On its way to the cellar, the chilled wort is added with yeast and supplied with sterile air to ensure yeast propagation. The(...)
  • The most common form is isobarometric filling. With this method, the pressure for keg, bottle and can filling corresponds to the pressure of the storage container. The same pressure is generated in the bottle as in the beer kettle, so that the beer flows into the bottle only under its own weight and without foaming or losing carbon dioxide. This pressure is generated by pre-pressurizing with CO2, which soaks back into the ring bowl through the incoming beer. To prevent the residual oxygen(...)
  • FlexConcept is an efficient and flexible drive technology. It combines decentralized or central frequency inverters with reliable geared motors and is equipped with permanent magnet (PM) motors and ultra-premium efficiency class IE5. The special feature of this concept is that it has been developed for both dry and wet, aseptic and hygiene-critical areas. For example, there is a high degree of protection IP66/IP69K or hermetically sealed housings and plug connections that prevent the(...)
  • The flow rate is an important factor for calculating and monitoring the energy consumption of systems such as wastewater treatment plants or cooling systems, which need to control the flow rate precisely for optimum operation. An excessively high flow rate leads to high energy consumption and higher costs. It is therefore important to adjust the flow rate so that it meets the requirements of the system. A frequency inverter can regulate the speed of a pump and thus control the flow rate(...)
  • A frequency converter is an electronic device used to adjust the speed of an asynchronous, PM or Sychron reluctance motor. This leads to the following advantages: Improvement of the process controlLower energy consumption and efficient power generationLess mechanical stress for motors and equipmentOptimized operation of various applications with electric motors Variable speed drives can also convert energy from natural and renewable sources, such as solar, wind or tidal, to feed into(...)
  • A geared motor is combined with an electric motor and a gearbox. The gearbox makes it possible to control the speed and torque of the motor. The fact that the speed and torque can be regulated makes it possible to use smaller motors, resulting in lower operating and maintenance costs. There are different types of geared motors: parallel shaft gearboxes, angular gearboxes and planetary gearboxes . It depends on the design of the gearbox whether a geared motor is suitable for light,(...)
  • It is a useful tool for cleaning buildings, vehicles, machines and systems. High-pressure cleaners are usually operated by a pump that pressurizes the water. This enables you to remove stubborn dirt quickly, effectively and without the use of chemical cleaning agents.
  • The design of a modern labeling machine is basically always the same. They achieve very high throughput rates, measured in bottles or packs per hour, and consist of a turntable with turntables mounted on the outside of the table to hold the containers during labeling. They also have an infeed and outfeed conveyor to feed the bottles into and out of the machine using rotary stars. Typically, the turntables of modern labeling machines are equipped with decentralized servo drives such as the(...)
  • The life cycle of a device is the period of time it passes through from development to disposal or reuse. Development and design In the development phase, the development department creates the design of the device, defines the desired functions depending on the application and the user interface. At the same time, the components and tools required for series production of the devices are created. This phase also includes all tests to ensure that the device meets the specified(...)
  • The load curve shows the power consumption of a business over a certain period of time. As a rule, this is measured in quarter-hourly values. This makes it possible to see when the most electricity was consumed and when the least. You can also see when a system requires unnecessary energy at standstill. Devices and machines that are no longer needed may still be running after closing time. A professional analysis of the load curve is therefore important if energy consumption and(...)
  • Maintenance or servicing concepts describe how often maintenance work should be carried out to ensure that all systems and components are in perfect condition and function fault-free. A distinction is made between three maintenance concepts: Interval-based maintenance: maintenance after a defined time interval Condition-based maintenance: (preventive maintenance) Maintenance based on monitoring the technical condition Malfunction-related maintenance: Repair after(...)
  • Regular maintenance ensures the efficiency and service life of technical systems and at the same time reduces energy costs in the system. Please note this: Recommended intervals: It is important that the manufacturer's recommendations for maintenance intervals are followed in order to guarantee maximum service life and efficiency. Regular inspection: It is important that the devices are checked regularly in order to detect and rectify faults at an early stage. (...)
  • The term "close to the motor" describes a design in which the frequency inverter is mounted directly on the electric motor or in close proximity to the motor within the system. This design makes it possible to shorten the cable lengths between the inverter and the motor. This can reduce costs such as for motor cables, the space around the control cabinet or switch room and EMC problems. In pumps and fans, motor proximity can also lead to a reduction in installation costs.
  • The distortion of the sinusoidal waveform of the supply network is caused by network feedback or harmonics. Network perturbations. Copyright: Danfoss GmbH They are caused by non-linear loads such as frequency converters, energy-saving lamps, switching power supplies in televisions, monitors and computers. All these devices load the grid with so-called harmonics, which leads to a significant distortion of the sinusoidal shape of the power grids if the load is too high. "Grid feedback"(...)
  • Mesh quality is very important and is not subject to quality control before use. The mains voltage supplied by the energy supply companies for households, commerce and industry is ideally a uniform sinusoidal voltage with constant amplitude and frequency. However, this ideal case can no longer be found in public networks today. This is partly due to loads that draw a non-sinusoidal load current from the mains or have a non-linear characteristic curve, such as PCs, televisions, switching(...)
  • Power-to-X refers to the ability to store excess electricity by converting the electrical energy into gas, synthetic fuels or solids. If required, these stored substances can then be converted back into electrical energy and used. What does power-to-X mean in practice? Power-to-X includes all processes that convert electricity into chemical energy carriers (storage), into fuels (mobility) or raw materials (for use in the chemical industry, for example). However, this is only beneficial(...)
  • Predictive maintenance is designed to detect the risk of a potential failure of components, devices or systems in production lines in order to prevent cost-intensive downtime. It uses data analysis of permanently recorded key data from the system. To do this, the system collects data from the system, e.g. with the help of condition-based monitoring (CBM), and analyzes this data either directly in local components, control systems or in the cloud. Predictive maintenance brings various(...)
  • Preventive maintenance is maintenance designed to detect and prevent potential system failures and malfunctions before they occur. Based on data acquisition during operation, the system also recognizes gradual changes in components and indicates necessary maintenance work before a failure can occur. The aim is to reduce maintenance and servicing costs, replace components when they become necessary due to wear or ageing, but not before, thereby extending the service life of the system and(...)
  • The process industry focuses on the manufacture of goods in which specific procedures and processes are used to produce an end product. In beer production, for example, there are many processes ranging from the procurement of raw materials, processing and packaging to the storage and sale of beer. In the production of beer, pumps are used to transport liquids during the process. To guarantee good quality and efficiency, frequency inverters are often used in these processes.(...)
  • Protection class IP69K is particularly important in the food and beverage industry, where devices are exposed to high levels of dust and moisture. IP69K means concretely: Highest possible protection against the ingress of dust (IP6_), as well as the highest possible protection against the ingress of water, even with high-pressure or steam jet cleaning (IP_9K). This protection class protects devices against damage caused by dust, moisture and splash/jet water and thus contributes to(...)
  • Square pumps have a constant performance with a linear increase in volume flow. This means that the torque of the pump increases in proportion to the square of the speed. These pumps are particularly suitable for applications in which the load changes with the third power of the speed. One example of this is the pumping of liquids with a constant pressure difference. Advantages: - Simple control and monitoring - Low costs, e.g. for the drive - Better efficiency at constant flow(...)
  • The rated speed refers to the maximum speed at which a machine or motor is normally operated. It is normally specified in revolutions per minute (RPM) and can vary depending on the application and machine. The rated speed refers to the speed at which a motor delivers its maximum power. This means that the machine is able to deliver its full performance at this speed without being overloaded or its efficiency being impaired. If a motor is operated at a higher speed than its rated speed,(...)
  • Reduction and optimization refers to measures to reduce electricity consumption and increase the efficiency of devices, processes and systems in order to reduce energy costs. Reducing and optimizing electricity consumption has many advantages. First of all, energy costs can be reduced due to the low power consumption. In addition, the low power consumption also leads to better efficiency, so that the same performance can be achieved with less energy. There is also a positive effect on the(...)
  • Control (monitoring) refers to the process by which input variables of a system are monitored and compared. This is intended to detect deviations from a specified target value. Subsequent corrective measures are intended to synchronize the actual state with the target state. Controlling, as the name suggests, refers to the management of a process. A system is controlled by control systems, for example by switching valves or starting motors. So basically, closed-loop control is a part of(...)
  • (Remote) Monitoring is the (remote) monitoring of components, assemblies, systems and processes. The aim of (remote) monitoring is to permanently monitor the performance of a system by collecting and analyzing data from the system with the help of sensors in order to detect and rectify problems or changes in the process sequences at an early stage. With remote monitoring, failures and disruptive factors can be detected and rectified at an early stage. The manufacturing process is(...)
  • Remote monitoring systems are used in many different applications, for example in energy supply, automation and transportation. The devices are usually monitored and managed via a network. Sensors and monitoring technologies collect and transmit data on the operation of devices, systems and production processes to higher-level control systems. With the help of this collected and evaluated data, users can optimize processes and the quality of production, identify and rectify problems and(...)
  • ROI (return on investment) is a key figure that expresses the relationship between the profit of a project or investment and the cost of capital. It is an important factor in determining whether an investment is worthwhile or not. ROI is also expressed as a percentage and calculated using the formula ROI=(profit-investment costs). A higher Roi also means a higher return on investment. Energy-saving projects refer to investments in energy efficiency measures that reduce energy consumption(...)
  • A separator is a device for separating two or more liquids or solids. It is frequently used in water treatment, waste water recycling and food processing. They work either by gravity or pressure. The particles are normally collected on a special filter element, which then needs to be cleaned regularly to maintain high performance. Separators can also be used to separate or concentrate emulsions. Separators are suitable for separation tasks that require high selectivity or where the(...)
  • Smart manufacturing uses data to make better decisions, automate processes and optimize operations. The aim is to achieve greater flexibility, quality and efficiency in production, but also to improve the monitoring and maintenance of production. This allows costs to be reduced and the quality of products to be improved at the same time.
  • The speed is a measure of the revolutions per minute that an electric motor performs. It is specified in rpm and determines the power and efficiency of the motor. The higher the speed, the higher the performance of the motor, but this also increases the power consumption. The importance of frequency inverters in modern drive technology: Frequency inverters enable precise regulation and adjustment of the speed of an electric motor. The affinity law states that the energy consumption(...)
  • Storage cellars generally have certain requirements in terms of temperature, humidity and lighting conditions in order to maintain and optimize the quality and taste of the beverages. In the past, these cellars were mainly used to store beer, which is why they are also known colloquially as beer cellars. A storage cellar can be underground or above ground and is often made of bricks, stones or other durable building materials to guarantee a constant temperature and humidity. Air(...)
  • Suspended solids or suspended substances are mineral or organic solids contained in water, air (or another ambient medium) that are difficult to dissolve due to their size and weight (especially similar density to the surrounding medium) and are kept in suspension. Individual particles are also referred to as suspended particles. Sedimentation, i.e. chemical precipitation, flotation and filtration, is used to remove suspended solids. HEPA filters for liquids are also used in particularly(...)
  • Sustainable ventilation and air-conditioning systems are ventilation and air-conditioning systems that regulate the indoor climate permanently and minimize the environmental impact. They treat the outside air in the ventilation unit and thus ensure a pleasant indoor climate by eliminating humidity and unpleasant or harmful odors. This is particularly important in rooms where many people are present. Why air handling units? People need approx. 20-60m3 of outside air per hour (...)
  • The torque indicates how strong a force must be to cause a body to rotate or change its speed. It is an important factor for machines, especially speed-controlled fans and pumps. The use of a frequency inverter makes sense at this point because it can still provide the full torque at a speed of 0. Torque monitoring is crucial to ensure that a machine operates within its permissible operating range and to prevent premature failure or damage. A common method for monitoring the torque is the(...)
  • Danfoss Turbocor oil-free centrifugal compressors are particularly flexible and can therefore be used in air-cooled, water-cooled or evaporative-cooled chillers, which are used in many different applications such as comfort cooling, low-temperature processes, storage and heat recovery. More than 70,000 Turbocor compressors have already been installed on construction sites around the world. Advantages: No reduction in performance and no mechanical wear over the service life of the(...)
  • The VLT® AutomationDrive - modular frequency inverter for almost all applications in industry. With its integrated intelligence, it ensures maximum efficiency and high reliability in production lines and plants. VLT® AutomationDrive FC 302 - versatile, reliable and powerful The modular frequency converter is ideal for almost all applications in industry, but also other segments such as buildings or municipal infrastructure. The robust inverter operates efficiently and reliably, even in(...)
  • Heat loss occurs in many industrial and commercial processes. This is also known as waste heat. They arise in almost every thermal or mechanical process. The range of possible sources of waste heat is therefore particularly wide. They can be used by heat exchangers, ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems or heat pumps to save energy and reduce theCO2 footprint. The principle is: avoid first, then consume. Avoidance of waste heat : Dimensioning: The aim here is to determine whether(...)
  • Waste water pumps are pumps that can pump water containing solids. They are available in many different versions. They can be made of cast iron, stainless steel or plastic. Waste water pumps are suitable for: Slightly contaminated water (solids up to 10 mm) Dirty water (solids up to 50 mm) Black water/feces (water with feces) When buying a waste water pump, it is important to pay attention to the flow rate. This indicates how many liters the pump can deliver per hour. The(...)
  • The water and wastewater industry is one of the largest energy consumers in the public sector. Energy costs are one of the biggest cost factors. Especially when pump systems are in operation for more than 2000 hours a year. The generation of this energy produces around 3 million tons of CO2 every year. In the long term, however, the municipalities and operators are aiming for CO2 neutralization in this sector. To achieve this goal, they must rely on modern technologies and optimized(...)
  • Decarbonization is the process of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is therefore an important part of efforts to combat climate change. This is also understood to mean an economic transformation of the energy industry. In industry in particular, decarbonization measures contribute to a reduction in harmfulCO2 emissions. Decarbonization is therefore also a central means of climate protection. The aim is for the economy to become(...)